Different verbs in Korean, how to use them in a sentence, and how to properly conjugate verbs.
List of some Common Verbs
가가 - to go
오다 - to come
놀다 - to play, to hang out*
살다 - to live
공부(를) 하다 - to study
좋아합니다 - to like
싫어하다 - to dislike (person/thing)
미워하다 - to hate (person)
사앙(을) 하다 - to love
환전(을) 하다 - to exchange money
원하다 - to want *놀다 can translate to play or hang out with friends. Can be used when meeting up with friends.
Conjugate a Verb - Present Tense
The 니다 verb form
Verb stem + ㅂ 니다 / 습니다
Present tense means the sentence is currently happening in the present.
English present tense sentence: I watch a movie.
We can’t use verbs in a sentence without first conjugating them. Verbs will conjugate differently depending how they are used.
verbs in Korean always come at the end of a sentence.
Verb stem is anything before the “다”
To conjugate a verb to the present tense, take the verb stem and attach “ㅂ니다” if it ends in a vowel. If it ends in a consonant then you will attach “습니다”.
Verb stems that end in ㄹ conjugate a little differently. To conjugate verb stems that end in ㄹ to the present tense, remove the ㄹ from the verb stem and attach it to “ㅂ니다”.
가다 - 가 (verb stem) + ㅂ니다= 갑니다
가 ends in a vowel so it is attached to ㅂ니다
먹다 - 먹(verb stem) + 습니다 = 먹습니다
먹 ends in a consonant so it is attached to
놀다 - 놀(verb stem) drop the ㄹ
노 + ㅂ니다 = 놉니다
*remember in the Batchim (final position) the ㅂ does not make a p/b sound. It sounds like ㅁ (m)
저는 갑니다 - “I go.”
저는 옵니다. -“I come.”
저는 포도를 먹습니다. - “I eat grapes.”
저는 농구를 합니다. - “I play basketball.”
The particle 에 can have different meanings depending on how it is used. It came mean:
“To, (going to somewhere) at (located at somewhere) or in (located in somewhere).
Examples: (going to somewhere present tense)
저는 사무실에 갑니다. - “I go to the office.” Meaning I’m going to the office.
저는 학교에 갑니다. - “I go to school.” Meaning “I’m going to school.
(at) and (in)
저는 한국에 집이 있습니다. - I have a house in Korea. What you have , or what exists will most often come before the verb 있다 in a sentence. Can also say: 저는 집이 한국에 있습니다.
Verb + Noun Combo
저는 공부하다. - “I study.”
Verb - 공부(를) 하다
This verb combines the noun 공부 - study
with the verb
하다 - to do
Together it literally means “to do study”
There are many verbs in Korean that are a combination of a noun and the verb 하다.
-입니다 is the verb 이다 conjugated to the present tense. It attaches directly to the word before it With no spaces. example: 저는 미곡 사람입니다. - I am American.
The verb 있다 means “to exist”. It can be used in two ways. #1 Can be used to say That something or someone exists- there is something Or someone. Use a noun followed by the subject marker and then conjugate the verb 있다.
Example: 집이 있습니다. - literally means a house exists. “There is a house.”
#2 You can use 있다 to say that you have something.
Example: 저는 돈이 있습니다. - literally this sentence means “I, money exists.“ - “I have money.”
Use the subject marker 이/가 after what it is you have.
저는 자동차가 있습니다. - “I have a car.” 저는 펜이 있습니다. - “I have a pen.”
Subject markers: 이/가
저는 자동차도 있습니다. - “I also have a car.”
자동차는 있습니다. “As for a car, I have one.” The object marker 를/을 cannot be used this way. The verb 있다 does not have an object- it merely means that someone or something exists.
이/가 comes after a noun
they are subject markers.
A subject marker in Korean marks a subject Of a verb. This is different than a topic marker. Subject marker is used together with 있다 to say that you have something, or to say that someone or something exists.
-이 used after a consonant. -가 used after a vowel.
저는 일이 있습니다. - I have work. 저는 자동차가 있습니다. - I have a car. 자동차가 있습니다. - there is a car or I have a car. The context of the sentence will make it clear if someone is talking about something they have or something that simply exists.
병원에 한자가 있습니다. - There are patients at the hospital. 한국에 한국 사람이 있습니다. - There are Koreans in Korea. 저는 미국에 여자 친구가 있습니다. - I have a girlfriend in America. 저는 한국에 남자 친구가 있습니다. - I have a boyfriend in Korea.
있다 is used to say that someone “exists” such as people and things. It cannot be used to say that you “have” an animal. For animals the verb “to raise“ is used: 키우다 is used.
Examples: 저는 고양이를 키웁니다. - I have a Cat as a pet. 저는 개를 키우고 십습니다. - I want to have a dog (as a pet).
You will still use the verb 있다 to state that an animal exists.
하교에 고양이가 있습니다. - There is a cat in the school.