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Study Notes: Batchim Rules

My Daily Language Log: Batchim Rules and Pronunciation. I love learning languages, and I would love to share what I've learned with others. I will log my languages I am currently learning here, such as new vocabulary, grammar, and interesting helpful things I learn. This is more of a personal log for myself to see my progress, and review my language learning strategies. Maybe you will learn something new from this Daily Language Log. These are my own personal notes to help me in my language journey. In no way is this a lesson, I am not teaching languages here on this blog. This is for self development, and I welcome others to share with me what they have learned, their experiences, and any corrections or suggestions they see I need to make in my notes. If you have any suggestions, or would like to share something about the culture or language I am learning please feel free to leave a comment or contact me. Thank you!


Hangul 한글

Korean Keyboard

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Batchim Rules

My notes are based off of the '"Hana Hana Hangul" Lesson from KoreanClass101

This final consonant is called a "받침(bat-chim)"


1st (consonant) ㅎ, ㄱ

2nd (vowel) ㅏ, -

3rd (consonant) ㄴ, ㄹ <- 받침 - Batchim

- Some consonants change their sound when they are in the Batchim.

Example: ㄹ sounds like a mix between "R" and "L" in English, but when it's the batchim, it always becomes an "L"

ㅇ When it comes before the vowel it makes no sound, but when it's batchim it becomes an "ng" sound.

Things to Remember

  • All consonants have three kinds: regular, double, and aspirated

  • Batchim can only be made up of consonants not vowels

  • The consonants sound can change in the Batchim

  • All either aspirated or doubled becomes soft (revert back to original sound) when it becomes Batchim

Batchim Rules

  • If you see an aspirated, or strengthened consonant in the Batchim it reverts back to original soft sound. Remove the strength from it. Example: 부엌bueok부억 - kitchen

  • Consonants "ㅅ(s),ㅈ(j),ㅎ(h)" all sound like ㄷ(d) in the Batchim. Since ㅊ(ch),ㅆ(ss) revert back to ㅅ(s),ㅈ(j), they also sound like ㄷ(d) in the Batchim. Examples: 꽃다발kotdabal 꼳다발"flowers"샀다satda 삳다"bought"

Batchim Rules Continued

Lenition & Fortis

Lenition: the consonant in the batchim position affects the next consonant

  • When "ㅇ" is not in the batchim it has no sound, it is just a place holder. If there is a batchim before the "ㅇ" then the consonant in the batchim (before it ) will replace it in the next word. Example: 한국어hangugeo한구거Korean

Fortis: When the consonant in the batchim and next consonant are the same, it becomes doubled

  • If the same consonant is in the batchim and the following initial position, then it will be doubled. If it can be. Example: 듣다deutda듣따 to listen

  • If ㄱ,ㄷ,ㅂ are the consonants either in the batchim position, the next consonant gets doubled if it can be. Example: 먹다meokda먹따 to eat

  • Consonants that can be doubled: ㅂ - ㅃ, ㅈ- ㅉ, ㄷ - ㄸ, ㄱ - ㄲ, ㅅ - ㅆ

Aspiration & Nasalization

Aspiration: Whenever ㄱ(g), ㄷ(d), or ㅂ(b) collides with ㅎ(h), then ㄱ(g), ㄷ(d), or ㅂ(b) changes into their aspirated version. Example: 축하chuka 축카 "celebration"

ㄱ - ㅋ ㄷ - ㅌ ㅂ - ㅍ


  • The following are nasal consonants - ㅇ(o), ㄴ(n), and ㅁ(m). ㅇ(o) is only nasal if it's in the batchim position.

  • If ㄱ(g), ㄷ(d), or ㅂ(b) are in the Batchim position, followed by a nasal consonant such as ㅇ(o), ㄴ(n), and ㅁ(m), then ㄱ(g), ㄷ(d), or ㅂ(b) will also become nasal consonants.

  • ㄱ(g) becomes ㅇ(ng), ㄷ(d) becomes ㄴ(n), and ㅂ(b) becomes ㅁ(m) Example: 국물gungmul궁물 "broth"

Chart made by yours truly (me) to help me for reference.


  • If a syllable starts with ㄹ(r) in the initial position, but the previous syllable has ㄱ(g), ㄷ(d), ㅂ(b), ㅇ(o), or ㅁ(m) in the Batchim, then the ㄹ(r) changes into the ㄴ(n) sound. Example: 심리simni 심니 "psychology"

  • Be aware of double changes. Example: 독립dongnip독닙 -> 동닙 "independence" In this example the ㄹ(r) is changed to the ㄴ(n) sound because a ㄱ(g) is in the previous syllables Batchim position. So the word becomes 독닙. Next step, since ㄴ(n) is now in the initial position, and ㄱ(g) is in the previous syllables Batchim position, the rules of Nasalization tell us that the ㄱ(g) must change to a ㅇ(ng). Therefore the word is pronounced: 동닙


  • When a ㄹ and a ㄴ meet, the ㄴ becomes a ㄹ

  • This happens both if the ㄴ is in the batchim, or the initial position. Example: 달나라dallara달라라 "moon"

  • This helps pronunciation to flow smoothly because the transition between ㄴ and ㄹ is difficult


  • If ㄷ(d) or ㅌ(t) are in the batchim position, followed by a 이 in the initial position, then the ㄷ(d) or ㅌ(t) replaces the ㅇ(o).

  • The sound also changes. The ㄷ(d) changes to ㅈ(z) and the ㅌ(t) changes to ㅊ(ch). Example: 같이gachi가티 -> 가치 "together"

Special Rules regarding ㅎ

  • If ㄴ(n), ㅁ(m), ㅇ(o), and ㄹ(r) are in the Batchim followed by a ㅎ(h) in the initial position, then the ㅎ(h) is replaced by ㄴ(n), ㅁ(m), ㅇ(o), and ㄹ(r) and ㅎ(h) goes away, exactly as it does to ㅇ(o). Example: 좋아서joaseo조아서 "because I like"

  • If ㄱ, ㄷ and ㅂ meet ㅎ, the ㄱ, ㄷ and ㅂ change to their aspirated forms, and the ㅎ goes away. ㄱ - ㅋ ㄷ - ㅌ ㅂ - ㅍ Example: 축하chuka추카 "congratulations"

Double Final Consonants

  • There are two types of double consonants. Double of the same consonants, or two different consonants. Two different consonants being paired, is only possible in the batchim.

  • Double of the same consonant in the batchim reverts back to the soft version of the consonant. Example: 밖bak박 "outside"

  • If the double final consonants meets with the ㅇ, they replace the ㅇ. Example: 맛있어요Masisseoyo 마시써요 "it's delicious!"

  • When two different consonants are combined in the batchim there are 11 different combinations available.

  • There are 11 different combinations but pronounced only 5 different ways

  • Regular combinations pronounce the left consonant (the first one, there are three that pronounce the right consonant (the second one). Example: 값ㅂ(b) ㅅ(s) -> ㅂ(b)갑 (gab)"price" 싫다ㄹ(r) ㅎ(h) -> ㄹ(r)실타 (silta)"to hate" 읽다ㄹ(r) ㄱ(g) -> ㄱ(g)익따 (ikta)"to read" 젊다ㄹ(r) ㅁ(m) -> ㅁ(m)점따 (jumtta)"young"

  • If the double consonant is made up of two different consonants follow the chart below for pronunciation. If the batchim is followed by a ㅇ/ or vowel in the initial position, split the double consonants in half. Only the last consonant will jump over. Example: 읽어요. - 일거요 - I read

Batchim Double Consonants Chart

Chart made by yours truly (me)


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